TBE risk factors

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an infection affecting the brain, spinal cord and surrounding membranes and can be serious with lifelong consequences, including disability, paralysis and death.1,2 Talk to your healthcare professional about how to help protect yourself from TBE, including getting vaccinated.​​​​​

Take this information to your healthcare professional to discuss further and find out if vaccination is right for you.


Ticks infected with the TBE virus are not confined to one country, with reports of ticks from across Europe to Japan.3,4 Changes in the environment are helping ticks to spread into new areas,4 and you may be at risk based on where you live or where you’re planning a holiday.

TBE in humans has been reported in 34 countries in Europe and Asia: Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bulgaria; Bosnia and Herzegovina; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Hungary; Italy; Japan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Mongolia; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russia; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; South Korea; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine.4 TBE may not have been found in all areas of a country. Please check local information.

Time of year

The risk of getting bitten by a TBE infected tick can change throughout the calendar year.1 Ticks are typically active when temperatures are above 6º Celsius, usually from March to November.1


Ticks live outdoors and near the ground.5 Where you spend your time can increase your chances of getting TBE from an infected tick, as ticks can be found both within or outside cities, in parks, gardens and forests.6 Even walking in a park may put you at an increased risk of TBE infection in certain countries.6


The TBE virus can be immediately transmitted to humans with a single tick bite.4


Any outdoor activity can put you at risk of coming into contact with ticks;6,7 for example, if you take part in activities in grassy areas where ticks are commonly found.6

Use the following prevention measures to minimise your risk:5,7

Avoid heavily tick-infested areas

Avoid heavily tick-infested areas of forest and woodland from spring until autumn, where possible

What to wear to avoid tick bites

Wear light-colored clothing, including long-sleeved tops and long trousers tucked into socks

Use insect repellent

Use effective insect repellents

TBE prevention

TBE vaccination may also be recommended for people living in or intending to visit at risk areas

Check your body for tick bites

Check your body for ticks regularly

Remove ticks from your body

Remove ticks as soon as possible by using a pair of fine tipped tweezers